Windows Vista – Wikipedia.Windows server r2 standard crack activation
It was the direct successor to Windows XP , which was released five years before, at the time being the longest time span between successive releases of Microsoft Windows desktop operating systems. Development was completed on November 8, , and over the following three months, it was released in stages to computer hardware and software manufacturers, business customers and retail channels. On January 30, , it was released internationally and was made available for purchase and download from the Windows Marketplace ; it is the first release of Windows to be made available through a digital distribution platform.
New features of Windows Vista include an updated graphical user interface and visual style dubbed Aero , a new search component called Windows Search , redesigned networking, audio, print and display sub-systems, and new multimedia tools such as Windows DVD Maker. Vista aimed to increase the level of communication between machines on a home network , using peer-to-peer technology to simplify sharing files and media between computers and devices. Windows Vista included version 3.
While these new features and security improvements garnered positive reviews, Vista was also the target of much criticism and negative press. Criticism of Windows Vista includes its high system requirements , its more restrictive licensing terms, lack of compatibility, longer boot time , and excessive authorization prompts from User Account Control.
As a result of these and other issues, Windows Vista saw initial adoption and satisfaction rates lower than Windows XP. However, Vista usage had surpassed Microsoft’s pre-launch two-year-out expectations of achieving million users, with an estimated million Internet users in January On October 22, , Microsoft ceased sales of retail copies of Windows Vista, and the original equipment manufacturer sales for Vista ceased a year later.
Official mainstream support for Vista ended on April 10, , and extended support ended on April 11, , while the server equivalent, Windows Server , had its mainstream support ended on January 13, ,  and extended support ended on January 14, As of February [update] , 0. Microsoft began work on Windows Vista, known at the time by its codename “Longhorn”, in May ,  five months before the release of Windows XP. It was originally expected to ship in late as a minor step between Windows XP and “Blackcomb”, which was planned to be the company’s next major operating system release.
Gradually, “Longhorn” assimilated many of the important new features and technologies slated for Blackcomb, resulting in the release date being pushed back several times in three years. In some builds of Longhorn, their license agreement said “For the Microsoft product codenamed ‘Whistler'”. Many of Microsoft’s developers were also re-tasked to build updates to Windows XP and Windows Server to strengthen security.
Faced with ongoing delays and concerns about feature creep , Microsoft announced on August 27, , that it had revised its plans. For this reason, Longhorn was reset to start work on componentizing the Windows Server Service Pack 1 codebase, and over time re-incorporating the features that would be intended for an actual operating system release.
Longhorn became known as Vista in The early development stages of Longhorn were generally characterized by incremental improvements and updates to Windows XP.
During this period, Microsoft was fairly quiet about what was being worked on, as their marketing and public relations efforts were more strongly focused on Windows XP, and Windows Server , which was released in April Occasional builds of Longhorn were leaked onto popular file sharing networks such as IRC , BitTorrent , eDonkey and various newsgroups , and so most of what is known about builds before the first sanctioned development release of Longhorn in May is derived from these builds.
After several months of relatively little news or activity from Microsoft with Longhorn, Microsoft released Build , which had made an appearance on the Internet around February 28, As an evolutionary release over build , it contained several small improvements, including a modified blue “Plex” theme and a new, simplified Windows Image-based installer that operates in graphical mode from the outset, and completed an install of the operating system in approximately one third the time of Windows XP on the same hardware.
An optional “new taskbar” was introduced that was thinner than the previous build and displayed the time differently. The most notable visual and functional difference, however, came with Windows Explorer. The incorporation of the Plex theme made blue the dominant color of the entire application.
The Windows XP-style task pane was almost completely replaced with a large horizontal pane that appeared under the toolbars. A new search interface allowed for filtering of results, searching for Windows help, and natural-language queries that would be used to integrate with WinFS. The animated search characters were also removed. The “view modes” were also replaced with a single slider that would resize the icons in real-time, in the list, thumbnail, or details mode, depending on where the slider was.
File metadata was also made more visible and more easily editable, with more active encouragement to fill out missing pieces of information. Also of note was the conversion of Windows Explorer to being a. NET application. Most builds of Longhorn and Vista were identified by a label that was always displayed in the bottom-right corner of the desktop.
A typical build label would look like “Longhorn Build Higher build numbers did not automatically mean that the latest features from every development team at Microsoft was included.
Typically, a team working on a certain feature or subsystem would generate their working builds which developers would test with, and when the code was deemed stable, all the changes would be incorporated back into the main development tree at once. At Microsoft, several “Build labs” exist where the compilation of the entirety of Windows can be performed by a team. The name of the lab in which any given build originated is shown as part of the build label, and the date and time of the build follow that.
Some builds such as Beta 1 and Beta 2 only display the build label in the version information dialog Winver. The icons used in these builds are from Windows XP. The demonstrations were done on a revised build which was never released. Several sessions for developers and hardware engineers at the conference focused on these new features, as well as the Next-Generation Secure Computing Base previously known as “Palladium” , which at the time was Microsoft’s proposed solution for creating a secure computing environment whereby any given component of the system could be deemed “trusted”.
Also at this conference, Microsoft reiterated their roadmap for delivering Longhorn, pointing to an “early ” release date. By , it had become obvious to the Windows team at Microsoft that they were losing sight of what needed to be done to complete the next version of Windows and ship it to customers. Internally, some Microsoft employees were describing the Longhorn project as “another Cairo” or “Cairo.
NET”, referring to the Cairo development project that the company embarked on through the first half of the s, which never resulted in a shipping operating system though nearly all the technologies developed in that time did end up in Windows 95 and Windows NT . It offered only a limited subset of features planned for Longhorn, in particular fast file searching and integrated graphics and sound processing, but appeared to have impressive reliability and performance compared to contemporary Longhorn builds.
In a September 23, front-page article in The Wall Street Journal ,  Microsoft co-president Jim Allchin , who had overall responsibility for the development and delivery of Windows, explained how development of Longhorn had been “crashing into the ground” due in large part to the haphazard methods by which features were introduced and integrated into the core of the operating system, without a clear focus on an end-product.
Allchin went on to explain how in December , he enlisted the help of two other senior executives, Brian Valentine and Amitabh Srivastava, the former being experienced with shipping software at Microsoft, most notably Windows Server ,  and the latter having spent his career at Microsoft researching and developing methods of producing high-quality testing systems.
This change, announced internally to Microsoft employees on August 26, , began in earnest in September, though it would take several more months before the new development process and build methodology would be used by all of the development teams. A number of complaints came from individual developers, and Bill Gates himself, that the new development process was going to be prohibitively difficult to work within. By approximately November , the company had considered several names for the final release, ranging from simple to fanciful and inventive.
In the end, Microsoft chose Windows Vista as confirmed on July 22, , believing it to be a “wonderful intersection of what the product really does, what Windows stands for, and what resonates with customers, and their needs”. That’s what Windows Vista is all about: “bringing clarity to your world” a reference to the three marketing points of Vista—Clear, Connected, Confident , so you can focus on what matters to you”. After Longhorn was named Windows Vista in July , an unprecedented beta-test program was started, involving hundreds of thousands of volunteers and companies.
The first of these was distributed at the Microsoft Professional Developers Conference , and was subsequently released to beta testers and Microsoft Developer Network subscribers. The builds that followed incorporated most of the planned features for the final product, as well as a number of changes to the user interface, based largely on feedback from beta testers. Windows Vista was deemed feature-complete with the release of the “February CTP”, released on February 22, , and much of the remainder of the work between that build and the final release of the product focused on stability, performance, application and driver compatibility, and documentation.
Beta 2, released in late May, was the first build to be made available to the general public through Microsoft’s Customer Preview Program. It was downloaded over 5 million times.
Two release candidates followed in September and October, both of which were made available to a large number of users. The UEFI 2. As a result, the decision was made to postpone the introduction of UEFI support to Windows; support for UEFI on bit platforms was postponed until Vista Service Pack 1 and Windows Server and bit UEFI would not be supported, as Microsoft did not expect many such systems to be built because the market was quickly moving to bit processors.
While Microsoft had originally hoped to have the consumer versions of the operating system available worldwide in time for the holiday shopping season , it announced in March that the release date would be pushed back to January in order to give the company—and the hardware and software companies that Microsoft depends on for providing device drivers —additional time to prepare. Because a release to manufacturing RTM build is the final version of code shipped to retailers and other distributors, the purpose of a pre-RTM build is to eliminate any last “show-stopper” bugs that may prevent the code from responsibly being shipped to customers, as well as anything else that consumers may find annoying.
Thus, it is unlikely that any major new features would be introduced; instead, work would focus on Vista’s fit and finish.
In just a few days, developers had managed to drop Vista’s bug count from over on September 22 to just over by the time RC2 shipped in early October. However, they still had a way to go before Vista was ready to RTM. Microsoft’s internal processes required Vista’s bug count to drop to or fewer before the product could go into escrow for RTM. On June 14, , Windows developer Philip Su posted a blog entry which decried the development process of Windows Vista, stating that “The code is way too complicated, and that the pace of coding has been tremendously slowed down by overbearing process.
During a demonstration of the speech recognition feature new to Windows Vista at Microsoft’s Financial Analyst Meeting on July 27, , the software recognized the phrase “Dear mom” as “Dear aunt”. After several failed attempts to correct the error, the sentence eventually became ” Dear aunt, let’s set so double the killer delete select all “. Windows Vista build October 17, was supposed to be the RTM release, but a bug, which destroyed any system that was upgraded from Windows XP, prevented this, damaging development and lowering the chance that it would hit its January deadline.
Development of Windows Vista came to an end when Microsoft announced that it had been finalized on November 8, , and was concluded by co-president of Windows development, Jim Allchin. Vista includes technologies such as ReadyBoost  and ReadyDrive , which employ fast flash memory located on USB flash drives and hybrid hard disk drives to improve system performance by caching commonly used programs and data. This manifests itself in improved battery life on notebook computers as well, since a hybrid drive can be spun down when not in use.
It uses almost all the extra RAM as disk cache. As part of the redesign of the networking architecture, IPv6 has been fully incorporated into the operating system  and a number of performance improvements have been introduced, such as TCP window scaling. The new driver model facilitates the new Desktop Window Manager , which provides the tearing -free desktop and special effects that are the cornerstones of Windows Aero.
Direct3D 10, developed in conjunction with major graphics card manufacturers, is a new architecture with more advanced shader support, and allows the graphics processing unit to render more complex scenes without assistance from the CPU.
It does this by making it easy to connect to external monitors, providing for protected HD video playback, and increasing overall video playback quality. For the first time in Windows, graphics processing unit GPU multitasking is possible, enabling users to run more than one GPU-intensive application simultaneously.
The Heap Manager implements additional features such as integrity checking in order to improve robustness and defend against buffer overflow security exploits , although this comes at the price of breaking backward compatibility with some legacy applications. Improved security was a primary design goal for Vista. UAC is a security technology that makes it possible for users to use their computer with fewer privileges by default, to stop malware from making unauthorized changes to the system.
This was often difficult in previous versions of Windows, as the previous “limited” user accounts proved too restrictive and incompatible with a large proportion of application software, and even prevented some basic operations such as looking at the calendar from the notification tray.
Regular use of the computer such as running programs, printing, or surfing the Internet does not trigger UAC prompts. User Account Control asks for credentials in a Secure Desktop mode, in which the entire screen is dimmed, and only the authorization window is active and highlighted. The intent is to stop a malicious program from misleading the user by interfering with the authorization window, and to hint to the user about the importance of the prompt.
Symantec used over 2, active malware samples, consisting of backdoors , keyloggers , rootkits , mass mailers, trojan horses , spyware , adware , and various other samples. Each was executed on a default Windows Vista installation within a standard user account. UAC effectively blocked over 50 percent of each threat , excluding rootkits. Internet Explorer 7 ‘s new security and safety features include a phishing filter, IDN with anti-spoofing capabilities, and integration with system-wide parental controls.
For added security, ActiveX controls are disabled by default. Also, Internet Explorer operates in a protected mode, which operates with lower permissions than the user and runs in isolation from other applications in the operating system, preventing it from accessing or modifying anything besides the Temporary Internet Files directory.
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Windows Server Essentials (formerly Small Business Server or SBS) is an integrated server suite from Microsoft for businesses with no more than 25 users or 50 devices. It includes Windows Server, Exchange Server, Windows SharePoint Services, and Microsoft replace.meation server technologies are tightly integrated to provide and offer . The R2 update was released for all x86 and x64 versions, except Windows Server R2 Enterprise Edition, which was not released for Itanium. is a server product based on Windows Server , designed for consumer use. The system was announced on January 7, Windows Server Standard (bit and bit) Windows Server Jan 21, · You use Standard Edition – because all coexist on a R2 Windows Server, but SQL will require at least Windows , which means SQL 20R2 have to drop off. This may seem like a bit of a strange thing to worry about, but 90% of the SQL Server dbs I support are the backends for COTS products, and, well, ISVs suck.
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Windows is a group of several proprietary graphical operating system families developed and marketed by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry.
Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, , as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces GUIs.
Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh eventually settled in court in Microsoft’s favor in On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system in all countries.
The most recent version for embedded devices is Windows 11 , version 21H2. Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denotes a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry. As of , the following Windows families were being actively developed:. The term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products.
These products are generally categorized as follows:. The history of Windows dates back to when Microsoft started work on a program called “Interface Manager”. It was announced in November after the Apple Lisa , but before the Macintosh under the name “Windows”, but Windows 1. Windows 1. The shell of Windows 1. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows. Microsoft sold as included Windows Development libraries with the C development environment, which included numerous windows samples.
Windows 2. It features several improvements to the user interface and memory management. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple’s copyrights. It runs in real mode but can make use of the high memory area. In addition to full Windows-packages, there were runtime-only versions that shipped with early Windows software from third parties and made it possible to run their Windows software on MS-DOS and without the full Windows feature set.
The early versions of Windows are often thought of as graphical shells, mostly because they ran on top of MS-DOS and use it for file system services. Unlike MS-DOS, Windows allowed users to execute multiple graphical applications at the same time, through cooperative multitasking.
Windows implemented an elaborate, segment-based, software virtual memory scheme, which allows it to run applications larger than available memory: code segments and resources are swapped in and thrown away when memory became scarce; data segments moved in memory when a given application had relinquished processor control.
Windows 3. They run inside the same address space, where the segmented memory provides a degree of protection. Microsoft rewrote critical operations from C into assembly. In August , Windows for Workgroups, a special version with integrated peer-to-peer networking features and a version number of 3.
It was sold along with Windows 3. Support for Windows 3. The next major consumer-oriented release of Windows, Windows 95 , was released on August 24, While still remaining MS-DOS-based, Windows 95 introduced support for native bit applications , plug and play hardware, preemptive multitasking , long file names of up to characters, and provided increased stability over its predecessors.
Windows 95 also introduced a redesigned, object oriented user interface, replacing the previous Program Manager with the Start menu , taskbar , and Windows Explorer shell. Windows 95 was a major commercial success for Microsoft; Ina Fried of CNET remarked that “by the time Windows 95 was finally ushered off the market in , it had become a fixture on computer desktops around the world.
Windows 95 was followed up with the release of Windows 98 on June 25, , which introduced the Windows Driver Model , support for USB composite devices , support for ACPI , hibernation , and support for multi-monitor configurations. Windows 98 also included integration with Internet Explorer 4 through Active Desktop and other aspects of the Windows Desktop Update a series of enhancements to the Explorer shell which were also made available for Windows Windows 98 SE added Internet Explorer 5.
Mainstream support for Windows 98 ended on June 30, , and extended support for Windows 98 ended on July 11, Windows Me incorporated visual interface enhancements from its Windows NT-based counterpart Windows , had faster boot times than previous versions which however, required the removal of the ability to access a real mode DOS environment, removing compatibility with some older programs ,  expanded multimedia functionality including Windows Media Player 7, Windows Movie Maker , and the Windows Image Acquisition framework for retrieving images from scanners and digital cameras , additional system utilities such as System File Protection and System Restore , and updated home networking tools.
PC World considered Windows Me to be one of the worst operating systems Microsoft had ever released, and the 4th worst tech product of all time. However, following the successful release of Windows 3. Win32 maintained a similar structure to the Windows APIs allowing existing Windows applications to easily be ported to the platform , but also supported the capabilities of the existing NT kernel.
Following its approval by Microsoft’s staff, development continued on what was now Windows NT, the first bit version of Windows. Windows NT was the first Windows operating system based on a hybrid kernel. The hybrid kernel was designed as a modified microkernel , influenced by the Mach microkernel developed by Richard Rashid at Carnegie Mellon University, but without meeting all of the criteria of a pure microkernel.
The first release of the resulting operating system, Windows NT 3. Windows NT 3. Windows NT 4. The Windows NT name was dropped at this point in order to put a greater focus on the Windows brand. The introduction of Windows XP aimed to unify the consumer-oriented Windows 9x series with the architecture introduced by Windows NT, a change which Microsoft promised would provide better performance over its DOS-based predecessors.
Windows XP would also introduce a redesigned user interface including an updated Start menu and a “task-oriented” Windows Explorer , streamlined multimedia and networking features, Internet Explorer 6 , integration with Microsoft’s. NET Passport services, a ” compatibility mode ” to help provide backwards compatibility with software designed for previous versions of Windows, and Remote Assistance functionality.
At retail, Windows XP was now marketed in two main editions : the “Home” edition was targeted towards consumers, while the “Professional” edition was targeted towards business environments and power users , and included additional security and networking features. Home and Professional were later accompanied by the “Media Center” edition designed for home theater PCs , with an emphasis on support for DVD playback, TV tuner cards , DVR functionality, and remote controls , and the “Tablet PC” edition designed for mobile devices meeting its specifications for a tablet computer , with support for stylus pen input and additional pen-enabled applications.
Extended support ended on April 8, After Windows , Microsoft also changed its release schedules for server operating systems; the server counterpart of Windows XP, Windows Server , was released in April After a lengthy development process , Windows Vista was released on November 30, , for volume licensing and January 30, , for consumers.
It contained a number of new features , from a redesigned shell and user interface to significant technical changes , with a particular focus on security features. It was available in a number of different editions , and has been subject to some criticism , such as drop of performance, longer boot time, criticism of new UAC, and stricter license agreement.
Vista’s server counterpart, Windows Server was released in early On July 22, , Windows 7 and Windows Server R2 were released as RTM release to manufacturing while the former was released to the public 3 months later on October 22, Unlike its predecessor, Windows Vista, which introduced a large number of new features , Windows 7 was intended to be a more focused, incremental upgrade to the Windows line, with the goal of being compatible with applications and hardware with which Windows Vista was already compatible.
Windows 8 , the successor to Windows 7, was released generally on October 26, A number of significant changes were made on Windows 8, including the introduction of a user interface based around Microsoft’s Metro design language with optimizations for touch-based devices such as tablets and all-in-one PCs. These changes include the Start screen , which uses large tiles that are more convenient for touch interactions and allow for the display of continually updated information, and a new class of apps which are designed primarily for use on touch-based devices.
Other changes include increased integration with cloud services and other online platforms such as social networks and Microsoft’s own OneDrive formerly SkyDrive and Xbox Live services , the Windows Store service for software distribution, and a new variant known as Windows RT for use on devices that utilize the ARM architecture , and a new keyboard shortcut for screenshots.
Windows 8 and Windows 8. On September 30, , Microsoft announced Windows 10 as the successor to Windows 8. It was released on July 29, , and addresses shortcomings in the user interface first introduced with Windows 8. Changes on PC include the return of the Start Menu, a virtual desktop system, and the ability to run Windows Store apps within windows on the desktop rather than in full-screen mode. Windows 10 is said to be available to update from qualified Windows 7 with SP1, Windows 8.
In February , Microsoft announced the migration of its Windows source code repository from Perforce to Git. This migration involved 3. In June , shortly before Microsoft’s announcement of Windows 11, Microsoft updated their lifecycle policy pages for Windows 10, revealing that support for their last release of Windows 10 will be October 14, On June 24, , Windows 11 was announced as the successor to Windows 10 during a livestream.
The new operating system was designed to be more user-friendly and understandable. It was released on October 5, In July , Microsoft announced it will start selling subscriptions to virtualized Windows desktops as part of a new Windows service in the following month.
It is not a standalone version of Windows, but a web service that provides access to Windows 10 and Windows 11 built on top of Azure Virtual Desktop. The new service will allow for cross-platform usage , aiming to make the operating system available for both Apple and Android users.
The subscription service will be accessible through any operating system with a web browser. The new service is an attempt at capitalizing on the growing trend, fostered during the COVID pandemic , for businesses to adopt a hybrid remote work environment, in which “employees split their time between the office and home”.
As the service will be accessible through web browsers, Microsoft will be able to bypass the need to publish the service through Google Play or the Apple App Store. Microsoft announced Windows availability to business and enterprise customers on August 2, Multilingual support has been built into Windows since Windows 3. The language for both the keyboard and the interface can be changed through the Region and Language Control Panel.
Components for all supported input languages, such as Input Method Editors , are automatically installed during Windows installation in Windows XP and earlier, files for East Asian languages, such as Chinese, and right-to-left scripts, such as Arabic, may need to be installed separately, also from the said Control Panel.
Third-party IMEs may also be installed if a user feels that the provided one is insufficient for their needs. Interface languages for the operating system are free for download, but some languages are limited to certain editions of Windows. Language Interface Packs LIPs are redistributable and may be downloaded from Microsoft’s Download Center and installed for any edition of Windows XP or later — they translate most, but not all, of the Windows interface, and require a certain base language the language which Windows originally shipped with.
This is used for most languages in emerging markets. Full Language Packs, which translates the complete operating system, are only available for specific editions of Windows Ultimate and Enterprise editions of Windows Vista and 7, and all editions of Windows 8, 8.
They do not require a specific base language, and are commonly used for more popular languages such as French or Chinese. These languages cannot be downloaded through the Download Center, but available as optional updates through the Windows Update service except Windows 8.
The interface language of installed applications is not affected by changes in the Windows interface language. The availability of languages depends on the application developers themselves. Windows 8 and Windows Server introduces a new Language Control Panel where both the interface and input languages can be simultaneously changed, and language packs, regardless of type, can be downloaded from a central location.
The PC Settings app in Windows 8.