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Research proposal. A boy wishing to find the hezght of a steetle les fly an arrow thatjust reaches the toti and then falls to the ground. It is in the air 6 seconds. Required the hezght. A cat let fall fronm a balloon reaches the ground it io seconds. Required the distance.
In what time wzll a tpeznduinu 40 feet long make a vzibration? Page 14 14 A. Two mneieoric bodies in space are 12 miles apart. They weigh Ioo and lbs. If they siould fall toaether by force of their mutual attraction, what Plortion of the distance woluld be passed over by each body?
The distance passed over by the two bodies is inversely as their mass; hence one moves 8 miles and the oth er 4 miles. The weight of bodies below the surface of the earth decreases as the distance increases. What would the above body weigh if carried 2, mziles below the surface? See Physics, page 5, note. At what distance, above the sufwace of the earth will a body fall, the frst second, 21 inches?
A body falls 16 ft. Hence the body must be 12, miles from the centre, or 8, miles from the surface of the earth. How far will a bodyfall in 8 seconds? I,o24 ft.
Can a rifle-ball befred thr-olgi a handkerchief sus. The wind of the ball will lift the handkerchief somewhat. A rife-ball thrown against a board standing edg6ewise will knock it down; the same bullet fired at the board vill pass through it without disturbizng its position.
Why is this? The ball which is thrown has time to impart its motion to the board; the one fired has not. Why can a boy skate safely over a piece of thin ice, when, if he should pause, it would break under him directly?
In the former case there is time for the weight of his body to be communicated to the ice; in the latter, there is not. Why can a cannzon-ball be fred through a ldoor standing ajar, without moving it on its hin-ges? Because the cannon-ball is moving so quickly that its motion is not imparted to the door.
Why can we drive on the head of a hammzer by sinuply strikinzg the end of the handle? This can only be done by a quick, sharp blow which will drive the wooden handle through the socket before the motion has time to overcome the inertia of the iron head. A slow, steady blow will be imparted to the head, and so fail of the desired effect. Suzipose o’u were on a train of cars movin, at the rate of 30 milesper hour: with what force would you be thrown forward if the train were stopped instantly?
With the same velocity which the train had, oi 44 feet pet second. Your momentum would be your weight avoirdupois multiplied by this velocity. IZ what line does a stone fall from the nast-head of a vessel in motion? In a curved line, produced by the two forces-gravity and the forward motion of the vessel. In the daily revolution of the earth on its axis, from vwest to east, the top of the tower moves faster than the bottom, because it passes through a larger circle.
When, therefore, the ball falls, it retains that swifter easterly motion and so strikes east of the vertical. If is staled that a suit was once brought by the driver of a light-wagon against the owner of a coach for damcages caused by a collision. The comn laint was that the lattfr was drivingl sofast, that wheln the two carriages struck, fte drivcr Zf the former was thrown-forerard over the dash-board.
WThen the light-wagon was suddenly stopped, its driver went on by his inertia with the same speed at which the wagon was moving. That this threw him forward over the dash-board, proves his speed to have been unusual. In a vertical line to the track. The two equal, opposite motions would exactly destroy each other. Su5ppose a steamer in ralpid motion and on its deck a man jumping.
Can he jumnpi further by leapigs the w’ay the boat is moving or in the ofpiosile direction? It will make no difference as long as he jumps on the deck. Should he jump off the boat, then the effect would be different.
WHhy is a runnlintgjuniz lont er than a standing one? Because the motion gained in running is retained in the jump and adds to its distance. If a stone be dr ojpped from the mast-head of a vessel in motion, will it strike the same spot on the deck that it would if the vessel were at rest? It will. It falls with the motion of the vessel, and goes just as far forward while falling as the vessel does.
Coltd a party play ball on the deck of the Great Eastern when steaming along at the rate of 20 miles per hour, without making allowance for the motion of the ship.? They could. The ball would have the motion of the ship, and would move with it in whatever direction they might throw it. Since “action is equal to reaction,” why is it not as dangerous to receive the “‘ kick” of a gun as the force of the bullet? The striking force is as the square of the velocity; and the velocity with which the gun moves backward is as much less than that with which the bullet moves forward, as the gun is heavier than the bullet.
For this reason a heavy gun will kick much less than a light one. If you were to jumZn from a carriage in rapid nZotion, wouldyou leap directly toward the spiot on which you wished to alzghlt? No; because as one jumps from the wagon he has its forward motion, and will go just as far ahead, while leaping, as he would if he had remained in the carriage.
He should, therefore, aim a little back of the desired alighting-place. If you wished lo shoot a bird in swift fzight, would you aim directly at it? The bird will fly forward while the bullet is going to it. One should, therefore, aim a little in advance. At what parts of the earth is the centrifugalforce the least?
The poles. They simply turn around in 24 hours. What causes the mud tojfy from the wheels of a carriage in rapid motion? The centrifugal force the inertia of the mud. What proof have we that the earth was once a soft mass? It is flattened at the poles. This effect is produced upon a ball of soft clay by simply revolving it on a wire axis. On a curve in a railroad, why is one track always higher than the other?
I4What is the pirincijple of the sling? The sling is whirled until a strong centrifugal force is generated; the string, the centripetal force, is then released, when the stone flies off at a tangent. The mouth of the Mississzppi river is about 24 miles fulrther from the centre of the earth than its source. What causes its water to thus ” run Au hill? Were the earth to stand still in its daily rotation, the Gulf of Mexico would empty its waters back through the Mississippi to the northern regions.
Is it action or reaction that breaks an egg wheen I strike it against the table? The reaction of the table. Was the man philosophical who said “it was not the falling so far but the stofiping so quick that hurt him? If oneferson runs against another, which receives the greater blow? Action is equal to reaction: hence the blows must be equal. Would it vary the effect if the two persons were running in otbtosite directions?
The blow would then be the sum of both their momenta. If they were running in the same direction? The blow would be equal to the diference of their momenta. Because a single force always produces motion in a straight line. See problem I5. How much does the shipz move to meet the boat? The ship moves as much less distance than the boat, as it’3 heavier than the boat. Suppose a string, fastened at one end, will just sut5p5or a weight of 25 lbs. Unfasten it, and let two persons pull uipon it in opfilosite directions.
The second person, in the latter case, can pull as much as the nail did in the former. Can a man standing on a pilatfor;-scale make himself Iighter by ifting uip on himself? He cannot; because action is equal to reaction, and in an opposite direction. As much as he lifts up, so much must he press down. Why cannot a man lift himself by fiulling utp on his boot-straps?
See last problem. If ifrom a gun pilaced vertically, a ball were fired into perfectly still air, where would it. It would return into the gun. With what momentum would a steamboat weighing I,ooo tons, and moving with a velocity of I o feet per second, strike against a sunken rock?
With what momentum would a train of cars weighing Ioo tons, and running Io miles per hour, strike against an 7bstacle? What would be the copfiarative striking-force of tzwc hammers, one driven with a velocity of 20feetfer second, ana the other Io feet? Hence one will strike four times ae ht,rd a blow as the other.
This principle is of great impertance in chopping wood, splitting rails, and in all cases where percussion is concerned. On trial the plan failed. In which di rection should he have turned the bellows? In the manner adopted at first, of turning the nozzle toward the sails, the action of the wind against the sails and the reaction of the bellows against the boat just balanced each other.
If the man had turned the nozzle backward he could have saved the reaction of the bellows to move the boat. This would, however, have been a most costly and bungling way of navigation. Why will the foam all collect in the hollow at the centre?
Describe the rudder of a boat as a lever. The water is the F, the boat the V, and the hand the P. As the W is between the F and the P, it is a lever of the second class. Show the change that occurs from the second to the third class of levers, when you take hold of a ladder at one end and raise it against a building. At first the ground is the F at one end, the hand the P at the other, and the ladder the W hanging between; hence this is a lever of the second class. After a little, the F remaining the same, the P is applied at one end, near the F, and the ladder is the WV hanging, at the other; hence this is now a lever of the third class.
Why is a piinch from the tongs near the hinge more severe than one near the end? Because in the former case the tongs are a lever of the first class-in the latter, of the third. In the first class there is a gain of power, in the third a loss. Two 5ersons are carrying a weight of lbs. Whe e should it be suspended so that one will lift only 50 lbs.? One lifts 50 lbs. The proportionate length of the arms of the lever should be the same as the proportionate weights-i.
In a lever of the first class, 6 feet long, where should the F be fplaced so that a P of I lb. The W must be placed 3 in. What P would be required to lift a barrel of fiork with a windlass whose axle is one foot in diameter and handle 3 ft. P: W: rad. WHhat number of movable pzulleys would be required to;ift a W of lbs. How many lbs. What weight could be lifted with a single horseowe, 33, lbs. This block has 3 movable pulleys, and using the equation of the pulleys given in the last two problems, we have, making no allowance for friction, 33, lbs.
What distance should there be between the threads oj a screzwe, that a Pof 25 lbs. F: W:: Interval: Circumference. How high could a P of 12 lbs. P: W:: height: length. I wish to roll a barrel of flour into a wagon, the box of which is 4ft. How Ionff a plank should I get? The “evenzer” of apair of whifclrees is 3 J. For every 3 lbs. Hence one arm of the evener must be 6 in. Or, if we prefer, we may say 21 in. See Prob. In a set of three horse wshiffletrees, haing an “evene”?
For every lb. Hence one arm mast be 20 in.. The single horse should draw 3 lbs. What W can be lifted with a P of 0oo lbs. What is the object of the big balls cast on the ends of the Fandle of the screw used in cohying-firesses? By their inertia and centrifugal force they make the motion more uniform and continuous.
In a steelyard 2ft. How heavy a body can be weighed with a I lb. Describe the changefrom the Ist to the 3d class of levers, il the ditSerent ways of using a spade. When digging, the ground at the back of the spade is the F; the ground lifted is the W; and the hand at the other end is the P.
When throwing dirt, the left hand at one end of the spade is the F; the dirt at the other end is the W, and the right hand between the two is the P. As the P is between the F and the W, this is a lever of the 3d class. W Vhy are not blacksmiths’ and fire tongs constructed on the same princihle P The former are of the Ist class, as power is required: the latter of the 3d class, as rapidity only is necessary.
In a lever of the 3d class, what y will a P of 50 lbs. P: W:: Wd: Pd. In a lever of the 2d class, what IV will a P of 50 lbs. In a lever of the Ist class, what Wgwill a P of 50 lt. A balance. Required the circumference of thu wheel. P: W:: diameter of axle: diam. Required the circumference of the axle.
What P would be necessary to sustain a weight o0 3, lbs. Iowr many movable pfilleys would be required to sustain I Wof lbs.
Why do housekeepfers test the strength of lye, b trying whether or not an egg will float on it? The potash dissolved in the water to form lye increases the density of the liquid.
When enough has been dissolved to make its specific gravity greater than that of the egg, the egg will float. This becomes, therefore, a simple means of testing the amount of potash contained in the lye. How much water will it take to make a gallon of strong brine. A gallon. The salt does not increase the bulk of the liquid. Why can afat man swim easier than. Because muscles and bones are heavier than fat. The specific gravity of a fat man is therefore less than that of a lean one.
Why does thefiring of a cannon over the watersometimes bring to the surface the body of a drowned person. It is probable, also, that the firing of the gun produces a partial vacuum, or in some way takes off, for an instant, a part of the pressure of the air on the water.
The gases in the body would then expand and bring it to the top. The pressure of the water is less as they near the top, and so they expand. What is the pressure on a lock-gate 14 feet high and Io feet wide, when the lock is full of water f 14 x 10 x 7 x oz.
Will a iail of water weigh any more with a live fish in it than without? If the pail were full before the fish was put in, then it will make no difference, since the fish will displace its own weight of water, which will run over. If the pail is only partially filled, then, though the fish is upheld by the buoyancy of the water, since action is equal to reaction, it adds its own weight to that of the water.
If the water filtering down through a rock should collect in a crevice an inch square and feet high, opening at the bottom into a closed fissure having 20 square feet of surface, what would be the total pressure tending to break the rock?
The pressure is the same on every square inch of the twenty square feet of surface. Why can stones in water be moved so mnuch more easily than on land? Because the water oaoys up about one-half of their weight. Why is it so difficult to wade in the water where there is any current? Because the buoyant force of the water makes us so light that we are easily carried away from our footing. Why is a mill-dam or a canal embankment small at the tofp and large at the bottom?
Because the pressure of the water increases with the depth. In digging canals and building railroads, ozught not the engineer to take into consideration the curvature of the earth? If he should build on a true level he would find his embankment pointing up to the stars. Is the water at the bottom of the ocean denser than thal at the surface? The immense pressure must condense it very much at great depths. There is a certain point beyond which divers cannot penetrate. Why does the bubble of air in a spzrit-level move as the instrument is turned?
Because the air is lighter than the alcohol and rises constantly to the highest point. For this reason, also, the tube is curved upward at the centre. Why can a swimmer tread on glass and other sharp substances at the bottom of the water with ithttle harm? See problem I I. Will a vessel draw more water in salt or in fresh water! In fresh, because its specific gravity is less. Will iron sink in mercury? It will float, like a cork on water.
The water in the reservoir in New York is about 8ofeel. What is tihe pressure on a single inch of the pi]pe at the latterpoint? Why does cream rise on milk? Because it is lighter than the milk.
Ifa ship founders at sea, to what dei5th will it sink? Until its specific gravity becomes equal to that of the water? There is a story told of a Chinese boy who accidentally dropped his ball into a deep hole, where he could not reach it.
He filled the hole with water, but the ball would not quite lat. Hefinally bethought himself of a lucky expedient, which was successful. Can you guess it? He put salt in the water. Which has the greater buoyantforce, oil or water? Water, because its density is greater.
What is the weight of 4 cu. How many oz. What is the specific gravity of a body whose weight ix air is 30 grs. The body is three times as heavy as water. Which is heavier, a pail of fresh water or one of salt. A pail of salt-water is as much heavier than one of freshwater as the weight of the salt added to make the brine. Find its sjiec.
A sfiecimen of green safifhire from Siam weighed in air 2I. Required its sjiec. A specimen of granite weighs in air What is the sj5ec. What is the bulk ofa ton of iron? A ton of coAS5er? What is the weight of a cube of gold 4 feet on eacA ride?
A cistern is 12 ft. On one side, 12 x 10 x 5 x oz. Why does a deadfish alwaysloat on its back? It has its swimming-bladder located just under the spine; and this is the lightest part of its body, and, of course, comes to the top as soon as the fish dies. To be exact, 1, oz. Troy, whenr the ans.
A vessel holds Io lbs. Mercnry is Hence the vessel would contain 10 lbs. A stone weighs 70 lbs. A hollow ball of iron weighs Io lbs. As a cubic ft. How much more water can be drawn from a faucet 8 feet, than from one 4 feet below the surface of the water in a cistern? Hence 6. How much water would be discharged ijer secondfr-om a shortpfipe having a diameter of 4 inches and a depth of 48 feet below the surface of the water?
When we pour molasses from a jug, why is the stream so much larger near the nozzle than at some distance from it p Because, according to the law of falling bodies, the further the molasses falls the faster it falls. The stream, therefore, becomes smaller as it moves more swiftly, until, at last, it breaks up into drops. Ought afaucet to extend into a barrel beyona the staves-t No; because cross currents would be produced, which would interfere with the free passage of the liquid.
What would be the effect if both the openings in one of the arms in Barker’s Mill were on the same side? It would cease revolving. The pressure in each direction would then be equal, and the arms would balance. Why must we make two openings in a barrel of cider when we taf it? One to let out the cider, and one to admit the air. What is the weight of ro cubic feet of air? What is the pressure of the air on one square rod of land? What is the pressure on a pair of Magdeburg hemispheres 4 in.
How high a column of water can the air sustain twhen the barometric column stands at 28 in.? If we should add a fressure of two atmospiheres, what. The pressure is trebled, and according to Mariotte’s law, the volume will be reduced in the same proportion; hence it will be cu.
If, while the water is running through the sizphon, we quickly lift the lonlg arm, what will be the effect on the water in the sipthon? It will all run back through the short arm into the vessel. If we lift the entire sipthon? The water will all run out the long arm.
In theory, Why cannot we raise water, by means of a sipfhon, to a higher level? There is no power in a siphon; it is only a way of guiding the flow of water to a lower level.
If the air in the chamber of a fire-engine be condensed to 1c6 its former bulk, what will be thefiressure due to the ex! What causes the bubbles to rise to the surface, when we put a lump of loaf-sugar in hot tea?
The bubbles of air contained in the pores of the sugar rise because they are lighter than the water. To what height can a balloon ascend? Until its specific gravity is the same as that of the air in which it floats. A weight equal to the difference between its own weight and that of the air it displaces. Why is the air lighter in foul and heavier in fair weather? This question is answered in the Philosophy. Another reason may be, that the upward currents of air partly remove the pressure in foul weather.
When smoke ascends in a straight line, is it a proof o1 the rarity or density of the air? Of its density, because it shows that the smoke is much lighter than the air, and so rises immediately to the top. Why do we notfeel the heavy pressure of the air on out bodies?
The pressure on a person of ordinary size is about 16 tons. Is a bottle empSty whenfilled with air? No; because we must empty the air out before we can fll the bottle with anything else. How does the variation in the pressure of the air affect those who ascend lofty mountains? The outward pressure is there partly removed, and the inner pressure remaining the same, the blood is often forced through the ears, nostrils, etc. When one descends into a deep mine the conditions are reversed: the outer pressure becomes in excess of the inner; severe pain is felt in the eardrum, and ringing noises in the head become almost intolerable.
These, however, disappear after a time, where the equilibrium between the internal and external pressure is restored. It is said that Humboldt ascended where the mercurial column fell to 14 inches, and descended in a diving-bell where it rose to 45 inches-thus making a variation of 3I inches, or a difference of 3 I,ooo lbs.
How near would the bell be filled at a depth of 1, feet. If the bell were then raised, would the water stay in till it reached the surface? The elasticity of the air would cause it to gradually expand and drive out the water as it rose.
Three minutes elap5se between theflash and the rejiort of a thunderbolt: how far distant is it? If the air is at the freezing point, the distance is ft. Five seconds expire between theflash and report of a gun: what is the distance.? Suippose a speaking-tube should connect two villages Io miles apart.
How long would it take a sound to pass that distance? The report of a pistol-shot was returned to the earfrom theface of a cliff in 4 seconds. How far was it? What is the cause of the difference in the voice of man and woman? It may be a difference in the length of the vocal chords, or in the power of lengthening and shortening them; but it is not yet fully understood. The difference between a bass and tenor, as between a contralto and soprano voice, is probably that of quality only, like that between different kinds of musical instruments.
What is the number of vibrationsfier second necessary to produce the fifth tone ofthe scale of C? What is the length of each sound-wave in that tone when the temperature is zeroa? What is the number of vgbrations in the fourth tfne above middle C Cj?
A meteor of Nov. A stone was let fall into a well, and in 4 seconds was heard to strike the bottom. How deep was the well? See p. What time would it require for a sound to travel 5 mites in the still water of a lake? How much louder will be the report of a gun to an observer at a distance of 20 rods than to one at half a mile?
Hence the sound is 64 times louder to the observer at 20 rods that to the one at half a mile. Does sound travel faster at the foot or at the tofi of a mnountain?
The density and elasticity of the air vary in the same proportion; hence if the temperature were the same on the top of a mountain that it is at the foot, the velocity of sound would be the same, but as it is always colder, the velocity is less. Because the intensity of the sound-wave is weakened at each reflection. Why is it so fatiguing to, talk through a sfieakingtrumpet? Because so much more air must be set in motion by the vocal chords.
The column of air in the resonant cavity of the throat is re-enforced by all the air in the trumpet. A needlewoman will distinguish by the sound, whether it is silk or cotton that is torn. Blind people recognlze. Why is a secondary bow fainter than the jprimary I The primary is produced by one reflection and two refractions; the secondary, by two reflections and two refractions.
The additional reflection weakens the ray. Why are the colors reversed? We can understand this by looking at Fig. In one bow we see that the rays enter the drops at the top, and are refracted at the bottom to the eye; in the other, that the rays enter at the bottom, and are refracted at the top to the eye. Why can we notsee arounda house or through a bent tube? The rays of light move in straight lines.
What color would a painter use if he wished to represent an opening into a dark cellar Black. Is black a color? No; it is the absence of color. The roles involved in making a LibriVox recording. Not all volunteers read for LibriVox. If you would prefer not to lend your voice to LibriVox , you could lend us your ears.
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Our sample essays Categories. All samples. Journal article. Response essay. Analysis any type. Discussion Essay. Argumentative essays. Annotated bibliography. Case study. Research proposal. Term paper. Research paper. Essay any type. Creative writing. Reflect on this topic. Explain how a particular theoretical perspective applies to your own experience, personal or professional. Why can we notsee arounda house or through a bent tube? The rays of light move in straight lines. What color would a painter use if he wished to represent an opening into a dark cellar Black.
Is black a color? No; it is the absence of color. Is white? Yes; it is the presence of all color-i. By holding an object nearer a light, will it increase or diminish the size of the shadow? It will increase it, because more rays are intercepted. Where do we see a rainbow in the morning?
In the west. An architect, comparing the length o’ two lines separated from each other, if he estimate within the 30th part, we leem very accurate; but a musician would not be considered very precise who only estimated within a quarter of a note.
In a large orchestra, the leader will distinguish each note of each instrument. Wc recognize an old-time friend by the sound of his voice, when the other senses utterly fail to recall him.
The musician carries in his ear the idea of the musical key and every tune in the scale, though he is constantly hearing a multitude of sounds. A tune once learned will be remembered when the words of the song are forgotten. Pepper tells us that he tuned a fork which corresponded to 64, vibrations per second. Can any two sp5ectators see the same rainbow? They cannot, because no two persons can be at the right angle to get the same color from a drop. Why, when the drofps of water are falling through the air, does the bow appear stationary?
Because the drops succeed each other so rapidly that they keep a constant impression on the retina. Why can a cat see in the night? Because the pupils of its eyes are larger, and so admit more light. Why cannot an owl see in daylight? The pupils of its eyes are large enough to admit of cleal vision in the night, but they cannot be contracted, and so in daylight the owl becomes dazzled with the excess of light received. Wshy are we blinded when we pass quickly from a dara into a brilliantly lighted room?
The pupils of our eyes admit too much light, but they soon contract to the proper dimensions, and we can then see distinctly. When we pass out from a lighted room into the dark street, the conditions are reversed.
If the light on a distant planet is only ylog that which we receive, how does its distance from the sun compare with ours? If when I sit 6 feet from a candle I receive a certain amount of light, how much will I diminish it if I sit back 6 feet further? As my distance from the light is doubled, the light is inversely as 22, or only i as bright. Why do drops of rain, in falling, appear like liquid [hSoads? The impression the drop makes on the retina remains until the drop reaches the ground.
We see this illustrated in greasing a bit of paper. It becomes semitransparent because more light passes through it, but looks darker itself because less light is reflected to the eye. Does color exist in the object or in the mind of the observer? In the mind. Color in the object can be only a peculiar property whereby a body absorbs some colors, and reflects or transmits others.
Why is lather opaque, while air and a solution of soap are each transparent? By repeated reflections and refractions in passing through the unhomogeneous mass of lather, the rays are weakened. The principle is the same as that of deadening floors with tanbark. Why does it whiten molasses candy to jull it? Water is given up both in cooking and pulling. This causes more light to be reflected Q. Why does plastering become lighter in color as it dries? Because, as the water evaporates, the mortar transmits less light, and reflects more light to the eye.
Why does a photographer iuse a kerosene oil-lamp in the’ dark-roomz? Some ” dark-rooms” are lighted with yellow glass windows. Is the common division of colors into “cold” and “warm” verified in philosophy? Yes; red contains more heat than violet. I Why is the image on the camera, Fig. I67, inverted? The rays cross each other at the focus of the double convex len. WJhy is the second image seen in the mirror, Fig. As the latter is a beter reflector,.
Each image after that will be weakened by the repeated reflection. Which can be heard at the greater distance, noise or music? Other things being equal, music will penetrate much further than noise. Boatmen call to each other, at a distance, in a musical tone.
A band is heard above the noise of the rabble. It seems to be a wise arrangement of Providence that all harsh, discordant noises should perish as soon as possible, and only harmonious ones survive.
Why are some bodies brilliant, and others dull? Some reflect the light better than others. A piece of stone coal lying in the sun’s rays will shine so brilliantly that one will cease to see the coal at all, and will judge it to be a bright metal. Why can a carpenter looking along the edge of a board tell whether it is straight?
If the edge is straight, the light will be reflected uniformly to his eye from the whole length. Any uneven places will make dark and light spots. Why can we not see out of the window after we have lighted the lampf in the evening? The glass reflects the light of the lamp back to our eyes, and they adapt themselves to the increased amount. Why does a ground-glass globe soften the light? It scatters the rays. Why can we not see through.
They transmit the light irregularly to the eye, and not uniformly, like a transparent body. Why does the moon’s surface appear flat? Because it is so distant that the eye cannot detect the difference between the distance of the centre and the circumference.
Why can we see further with a telescope than with the naked eye? Because it furnishes us more light with which to see a distant object. Why is not snow transparent, like ice? Because it is unhomogeneous. See problem I8. Are there rays in the sunbeam which we cannot see? We cannot see the heat or the chemical rays. Then closing one eye and looking steadily at one mark though we can see both , move the paper toward the eye.
A point will be reached where the eye can perceive only one of the marks; on coming nearer, both will be seen again.
Holding the card pretty near the eyes, look through these holes at the head of a pin. There will seem to be two pin-heads. Since an impression is made on the retina of each eye, it would seem that we ought always to see objects double. The nerves from both eyes are so joined, however, before they reach the brain, that this effect is avoided.
If, now, we cause the image on the retina to be made on parts of the eye which do not correspond to each other, we shall obtain a double image.
Why is a rainbow in the morning a sign of foul, and in the evening of fair weather? In the morning it indicates a formation of clouds when the temperature is rising, and therefore shows a determination to moisture. In the evening it indicates a clearing away when the temperature is falling, and hence shows a determination to dryness.
Why is a red, lowering sky in the morning a sign of rain, and a brilliant red sky at night, of fair weather? Why does a distant light, in the night, seem like a star!
Why does a bright light, in the night, seem so much nearer than it. Why does a ray of light, j5assed through a small hole, of any shape, inz a card, make a round, bright spot? Why are these siots crescent-shaped during an eclipse? VWhat color predominates in artificial lights? Why does yellow seem white, and blue green, when seen jby artificial light?
Because the white takes on, in the yellow rays. So, also, dark blue becomes purple, and red has a tawny hue. Magnesium light possesses all the colors of the spectrum, and hence all objects retain their natural appearance when illuminated by it. Why are we not sensible of darkness when we wink? Because the impression of the light is retained upon the retina during the brief interval of darkness. Why will one’s hand, on a frosty morning, freeze to a metallic door-knob sooner than to one of porcelain?
Because the metal is a better conductor of heat than the porcelain, and hence conducts the heat from the hand faster. Why does a piece of bread toasting curl up on the side toward the fire? The water being expelled from the pores on that side causes the bread to shrink.
Why do double windows protect from. The non-conducting air enclosed between the window-panes keeps in the heat and keeps out the cold. VWhy do fur;nace-men wear flannel shirts in summet to kefie cool, and in winter to keep warm? Why do we blow our hands to make them warm, and our soup to make it cool?
Our breath is warmer than our hands, but cooler than our soup. Why does snow iprotect the grass? The air enclosed between the flakes of snow is a non-conductor. No infant in its cradle is tucked in more tenderly than the coverlet of snow about the humble grass that nestles down for its winter’s nap on the bosom of mother Earth. Why does water “boil away” more rapiidly on some days than on others? Because the atmospheric pressure varies. What causes the crackling sound ill a stove, when a fire is lighced?
The expansion of the iron by the heat. Why is the tone of a iiano higher in a cold room than in a warmn one? The steel wires lengthen in a warm room, and so lower the tone. Ought an inkstand to have a large or a small mouth? A small mouth, to prevent evaporation. Why is there a space left between the ends of the rails on a railroad track?
To allow room for the expansion and contraction of the railq with the changes in temperature. Why is a person liable to take cold when his clothes are daimnf? The water which evaporates from his clothes, in drying, absorbs heat from his body.
What is the theory of corn-iofpfiing? The air in the ceiis oi the corn expands by the heat and bursts the outer coating of the corn. Could vacuum-pans be employed in cooking?
They could not, because the heat would not be sufficient to cook the food. Why does the air feel so chilly, in the spring, when snow and ice are melting?
When the ice is passing into the liquid state, it absorbs heat from all surrounding objects. Why, in freezing ice-cream, do we put the ice in a wooden vessel, and the cream in a tin one? The non-conducting wooden vessel prevents the ice from absorbing heat from the external air, and the conducting tin vessel enables it to absorb the heat from the cream. Why does the temperature generally moderate when the mnow falls?
The vapor passing into the solid form gives off heat. Why does sjrinkling a floor with water cool the air? The water turning to vapor absorbs heat.
How low a degree of temierature can be reached with a mercurial thermometer? If the temperature be F. Will dew form on an iron bridge? Yes, because iron is a good radiator. On a wooden bridge? Not so readily, because wood is a poorer radiator. VWhy will not corn ipo when very dry? The pores shrink, and the corn becomes compact; only porous, tender-celled corn will pop.
The interior of the earth being a melted mass, why do we get the coldest water from a deep well? Oughtl the bottom of a tea-kettle to be polished? No, since a polished surface would reflect the heat. We need a black, rough, sooty surface to absorb the heat rapidly.
Which boils the sooner, milk or water? Milk, because it is so adhesive that the bubbles of steam which are formed at the bottom of the dish cannot easily escape. They therefore pile up on top of each other, and the milk boils over readily. Is it economy to keep our stoves highly polished? The stove-blacking used is a good radiator, but the surface should not be highly polished, as that hinders radiation. If a thermometer be held in a running stream, will it indicate the same temperature that it would in a pailful of the same water?
For the same reason that a thermometer, in the wind, will indicate the same temperature as in the still air.
Which makes the better holder, woollen or cotton? Woollen, because it is so poor a conductor of heat. Which will give out the more heat, a pilain stove or one with ornamental designs? The latter, since it has more radiating surface 3 I. Does dew fall? No; it forms directly where it is found. The vapor merely collects on the cold surface. What causes the ” sweating’ of a pitcher?
The vapor of the air condenses on the cold pitcher. It is often a sign of rain, since it shows that the air is full of vapor easily deposited. VWhy is evaporation hastened in a vacuum? Because the pressure of the air is removed. Page 44 44 AJ. Does stirring the ground around plants aid in the dqefa sition of dew? It does, since it facilitates radiation.
Why does the snow at the foot of a tree melt sooner than that in thze oi5en field? The dark-colored tree absorbs the sun’s heat, and then radiates it out in slow, dull waves, which are absorbed by the snow. Why is the opening in a chimney made to decrease in size from bottom to top? Because as the heated air rises it cools and shrinks. If the chimney did not diminish in size correspondingly, currents of cold air would set down from the top.
Will tea keefi hot longer in a bright or in a dull tea-pot e In a bright one, since a polished surface retards radiation. Why is one’s breath visible on a cold day? The vapor in the breath is condensed by the cold air. Why is light-colored clothing cooler in summer and warmer in winter than dark-colored?
It does not absorb the heat of the sun in summer, nor the heat of the body in winter; dark-colored clothing has neither of these desirable properties. How does the heat at two feet from the fire compare with that at four feet? Hence it is four times greater. Why does the frost remain later in the morning uipon some objects than iupon others?
Those objects which are good absorbers of heat soon become warm enough to melt the frost upon them: poor absorbers heat more slowly, and so retain the frost longer. Is it economy to me green wood? It is not, since the sap must be changed to vapor, and wate,. This is, of course, entirely lost to the consumer. Why does not green wood snap? The pores are filled with water instead of air. The water does not expand rapidly enough to burst off the coverings of the cells, and so simply oozes out gradually and is vaporized.
Why will a fiece of metal droipped into a glass orjorcelain dish of boiling water facilitate the ebullition? The rougher surface of the metal aids in the formation and disentanglement of the steam-bubbles. The bubbles cling longer to a smooth than to a rough surface. This is one cause of that bumping sound often noticed when liquids are boiling in glass dishes.
Which can be ignited the more easily with a burningglass, black or white papier. P Black paper, since it is a much better absorber of heat. Why does the air feel colder on a windy day.? Because fresh portions of cold air are brought constantly in contact with our bodies. In what did the miracle of Gideon’s fleece consist? The hard threshing-floor was a better conductor of heat than the porous fleece; hence, naturally, the dew would collect on the latter more readily than cn the former.
In the miracle, the conditions remaining the same, the results in the two cases were reversed. Judges, vi. Could a burning-lens be made of ice? Burning-lenses have been made of that material. The rays have no heating power until the waves of ether are stopped. They do not elevate the temperature of the medium through which they pass. ZVhy is an iceberg frequently envelop5ed by a fog?
The moisture of the air is condensed upon its cold surface. Would dew gather more freely on a rusty stove than on a bright kettle? It would, because the rusty iron surface is a good radiator. Why is a clear night colder than a cloudy one f. On such a night there can be no frost or dew. On a clear night, the heat which the earth radiates passes out freely into space, and thus the earth cools rapidly.
Why is no dew formed on cloudy nights? See last question. Why do we use a longer tube of mercury for a baromzter than a thermometer? Which is the hottest jart of a room? Why is it hotter above a flame than at the side? What is the difference between dew and rain? Why will ashes keep fire overnigzht? If a piane of glass and a similar late of polished s4eel were laid upon the ground, in the night, zpon which would the dew form most abundantly?
The glass is a poor conductor of heat, and so would absorb little heat from the earth, while the metal would absorb it freely; the glass is a better radiator than the polished metal, and thus would become drenched with dew, while the metallic surface would be scarcely dimmed.
Why is there but little dew forzmed in cities? Is an abundant dew a sign of rain? It is. See question Is there any dew formed out at sea The cold air settles into the valley, while the warm air rises to the hills. How are hailstones formed? There are two separate currents of air, one hot and charged with moisture, the other cold. The former is displaced by the latter and driven up in the atmosphere. There its vapor is condensed at the centre of the cloud into snow, and at the extremities into ice-cold water.
In this cloud there is a whirling motion which collects the snow into little balls, each of which is the nucleus of a hailstone. Each of these is carried, alternately, by the whirling currents, into the snow-cloud at the centre, and the ice-cold water outside.
Both give it a coating, one of snow-like, spongy ice, and the other of transparent ice. This is done with great rapidity, until at last its weight overcomes the violent upward motion which sustains it in the air, and the hailstone falls to the ground.
When a hailstone is carefully examined we can see this nucleus, and these concentric layers, like the coats of an onion. Why do we have hailstorms in summer, and not in winter? The small spongy hail or sleeo of winter has the same origin as hailstones in summer, but there is not enough vapor in the cold air to give them the size of summer hailstones. Is the sweating of a ipitcher a sign of rain? At the top, because cold water falls. Why is evaporation hastened in a vacuum?
Is a dusty boot hotter to the foot than a polished one p It is, because it is a better absorber of heat. Loomis, in his “Treatise on Meteorology. Key, p. The method adopted in solving this problem is merely the rough one in common use, and gives only an approximate result.
If an exact answer is desired, we should take in account the time required for the sound to reach the ear. Is it likely that all the elements izave been discovered? It is not, since several have been found lately by means of spectrum analysis. The ancients held that there are but four elements-earth, water, air, and fire; the first representing the solid form of matter, the second the liquid, the third the gaseous, and the fourth the force which changes matter from one form to another. Few of the sixty-five elements are common.
Those italicised, in the table on page 14, are rare. The remarkable phenomena of allotropism would seem to indicate that, perhaps, what we now consider distinct elements may be only allotropic states of the same element. Indeed, it is possible to conceive that all substances are only allotropic forms of one universal essence. In the present state of chemistry this view cannot be proved, and is only a speculation as to what mav be discovered in the future.
What is the origin of the tern- “gas? The alchemists, whose earthen vessels often exploded 2. All these manifestations were supposed to be the work of invisibl’ spirits, to whom the name gahst or geist, a ghost or spirit, was applied. The miners were in special danger from these unseen adversaries, and it is said that their church service contained the petition, “From geists, good Lord, deliver us! If the air were luZire 0, what bodies would escae cornmbzsyioun in a co;agaration.?
Why will lime added to hard water often soften it? The lime will combine with the free carbonic acid absorbed by the water. This renders the water incapable of holding in solution as much carbonate of lime as before, which is then precipitated, and the water thus partly softened.
Wl’hy will stirring a wood fire quicken the flamze, but at coaltrire, will deadean it.? Stirring a fire lets in more 0, which quickens a wood fire but reduces the temperature of a coal fire below the point of union between 0 and coal. It is really based on the fact that a higher temperature is requisite to burn coal than wood. The same principle applies as in the last question. In addition, the force of our breath often drives the flame off the wick mechanically.
I4’hy will oyster-shells Jlaced on the grate oaf a coal fire pfrevent the formation of clinkers? The lime of the shells forms a flux with the silicates contained in the coal, and thus renders them more fusible. What alkali abounds in sea-weed? WVhat alkali abounds il land-plants? The former salt is a constituent of sea-water, and the latter of rocks which decompose to form the soil.
How is limne-water made fromn oyster-shells? This leaves the lime uncombined; hence it readily dissolves in water. Will not lime lose its benefcial effect zpons soil after a time? Lime acts in various ways to improve thy fertility of a soil. It corrects its acidity, aids in the decomposition of the rocky constituents, hastens the decay of the humus, and also makes the soil more porous. It does not, however, benefit the growing plant directly, but works up other materials in the soil.
It therefore loses its effect after a time. The Belgian farmers have a proverb: “‘Much lime and no manure Make falrm and farmer poorer. It gives up its O to oxydlize the organic impurities of the water in which they collect. Do all fish die whecz takent out of the wZater.? Some fish have an apparatus for moistening their gills.
They can therefore crawl about in the grass, and even migrate from one stream to another. NS I6. What proof have we that H is a metal? Besides that given in the Chemistry, the ” sodium amalgam” is thought by some to be an additional proof. Heat moderately in a test-tube a little mercury with a grain or two of sodium.
The two metals will combine, forming a pasty amalgam. When cold, pour over it a solution of sal-ammoniac. The amalgam will immediately swell up to eight or ten times its original bulk, retaining, however, its mnetallic lustre.
It is thought that H is the metal which puffs out and combines with the mercury, since otherwise we would be compelled to suppose that NH4 is a metallic element, instead of a compound radical, as is generally believed. WhKy does not frozen meat spoil? The cold protects from chemical change. The bodies of mammoths have been found in the frozen soil of Arctic regions so perfectly preserved that the dogs ate the flesh. How long the animals had been there we cannot tell, but certainly for ages.
In I86I the mangled remains of three guides were found at the foot of the Glacier de Boissons, in Switzerland. They had been lost in an avalanche on the grand plateau of Mont Blanc, forty-one years before.
Give an illustration of the effect of food on the dishosz. Bears which feed on acorns are mild and tractable, while those of the polar regions, which live on flesh alone, are fierce and ungovernable. Confnpare the chemical action of the animal with that of the flant.
The animal lives on organized materials, taking up O and evolving CO2, and other oxydized products. The function of the animal is oxydation; that of the plant, reduction. The food of the plant serves merely to increase its bulk; that of the animal is employed to replace the material worn out by the active operations of life.
The animal obtains the energy necessary for its. Show how man is made mainly of condensed air. Science has demonstrated that man is formed of condensed air; that he lives on condensed as well as uncondensed air, and clothes himself in condensed air, that he prepares his food by means of condensed air, and by means of the same agent moves the heaviest weights with the velocity of the wind.
But the strangest part of the matter is, that thousands of these tabernacles formed of condensed air, and going on two legs, occasionally, and on account of the production and supply of these forms of condensed air which they require for food and clothing, or on account of their honor and Dower, destroy each other in pitched battles by means of condensed air. In making 0 fromt chlorate of Jotash KO. C05 , haw much can be obtained from two pounds of the salt?
C x: 2lbs. In makino H, zi’ic is used. HIow much sulphate of zinc ZnO. Zn: ZnO. How much SO, will be required to make 50 lbs. SO3: FeO. The equivalent of the chloride of sodiumZL salt is In 14 lbs.
In 2o lbs. Si02 how manzt lbs. In a 25 lb. How zmuch KI zill ie feormned in prehiartng 80 grs. C will be required to make 80 grs. The constituent and compound are the same as in the last problem. How much H can be mzade from Io lbs. First find how much ZnO Io lbs. This 0 formed’ of the water, and the remaining 5 is the H set free. ZuO – 10 lbs. LibriVox volunteers narrate, proof listen, and upload chapters of books and other textual works in the public domain. These projects are then made available on the Internet for everyone to enjoy, for free.
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