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Paper Making Glossary: Your Guide to Paper Terminology.Photoshop Halftone Effect designs, themes, templates and downloadable graphic elements on Dribbble
The properties within paper that cause it to absorb liquids inks, water, etc. A binding term describing a method of folding paper. When unfolded it looks like the folds of an accordion. A transparent, acetate printing proof used to reproduce anticipated print colors on a transparent acetate sheet. Also called color overleaf proof. Paper made in a neutral pH system, usually buffered with calcium carbonate. This increases the longevity of the paper. Degree of acid found in a given paper substance measured by pH level.
From 0 to 7 is classified acid as opposed to 7 to 14, which is classified alkaline. A right angle to which the fiber direction of a piece of paper lies. Folding with, not against, the grain is recommended. Paper that is dried by circulating hot air around it with little or no tension or restraint on the paper.
This gives the paper a hard cockle finish typical of bond papers. Liquids added to the fountain solution of a printing press to reduce the surface tension of water. Cards of paper with matching envelopes generally used for social stationery, announcements, weddings, greetings, etc. A paper finish, usually used in book and cover papers, that has a tactile surface.
Usually used in natural white or creamwhite colors. Extra space at the binding edge of a foldout, usually on a French fold, which allows folding and tipping without interfering with the copy. Additional pressure applied through the impression cylinder assisting the image transfer to the press sheet. Substance used as a standard for white, in lieu of the availability of a practical percent reflecting diffuser.
Manufactured paper that will be further processed as laminated, Duplex Cover, Bristol Cover, or off machine embossed papers. The weight in pounds per ream of paper cut to its basic size in inches.
A metric system is used outside of North America. The operations that comprise collating, perforating, and folding the elements of a form into the finished product.
In fourcolor process printing, the black plate made to give definition to neutral tones and detail. In offset lithography, the rubbercoated fabric clamped around the blanket cylinder, which transfers the image from plate to paper. In printing, a type of photoprint used as a proof. It can be folded to show how the finished printed product will look. Strong, durable writing paper, consisting of wood, cotton, or both, most commonly used for letterheads, stationery, business forms, etc….
A high quality heavy weight paper, sometimes made with cotton fiber prepared or glued together, usually with a caliper thickness of 0. Unprinted sheets of actual paper folded in the signature size and signature number of a given job, to determine bulk. Joining two webs of paper, placing them end-to-end and pasting a strip over and under to make a continuous sheet without overlapping.
When printing, the spots of ink pigments on printing plates or press rollers, due to the vehicle carrying the ink not being able to hold the pigment in suspension. A vertical series of steel rolls at the end of the paper machine to increase the smoothness of the paper. To impart a smooth finish on paper by passing the web of paper between polished metal rolls to increase gloss and smoothness.
Improper drying of ink. Ink vehicle has been absorbed too rapidly into the paper leaving a dry, weak pigment layer which dusts easily. A light duplication of a printed image on the other side of the same sheet, created by chemical reaction by the ink during the drying stages; also referred to as “Gas ghosting”. Wood fiber cooked using chemicals producing a pulp used to manufacture numerous printing papers and paperboard products. Papers manufactured with chemical pulp are called “free-sheet” papers.
Chlorine and its compounds were commonly used to bleach fibers. This has been mostly eliminated. Virgin fibers are generally ECF, meaning no elemental chlorine or TCF meaning the bleaching is done with hydrogen peroxide, oxygen or ozone. Recycled fibers are generally PCF, meaning they were put back into the paper without the use of any chlorine or its compounds. Describes paper fibers that are uniformly dispersed within a sheet of paper -a characteristic of quality paper.
Same as cloud effect; cloudy. Opposite of close formation. Indicates unevenness and lack of uniformity of fiber structure. Printed bars of ink colors used to monitor a print image.
These bars show the amount of ink to be applied by the press, the registration, and the densities across the press sheet. Instructions attached to artwork or disc with the location, percentage, and type of color required.
Printing done using cyan, magenta, yellow, and black inks, each requiring its own negative and plate. Also called process color or four-color process. The method used in breaking down the primary colors needed to prepare plates for printing color work. A particular typeface that allows more print per line, as though the letters were squashed at their sides.
Allowing paper to adjust itself to the temperature and humidity of the printing plant prior to use. Company that converts paper from its original form to usable products such as envelopes, label stock, announcements etc.
Papers utilizing cotton linters. Today most cotton content papers are made for letterhead applications. The cotton fibers that adhere to the cottonseed used to produce pulp for cotton fiber papers. As a byproduct of the cotton industry, EPA recognizes it as recovered fiber. On a paper making machine the equipment that helps remove excess water from the moving web of paper prior to the wet press section of a paper machine.
Durable, heavier weight papers, available in a variety of finishes and colors, used for the cover of pamphlets, annual reports, business cards, etc…. A line perpendicular to the direction the paper travels through the papermaking machine. Also referred to as Cross direction or Cross grain. Undesirable distortion or waviness occurring to the paper due to the presence of excess moisture or humidity. Term used for watermarked letterhead papers to indicate the watermark will be cut to appear in a predetermined position on the finished sheet.
Also referred to as a localized watermark. Paper dust resulting from cutting or trimming the paper which can transfer to printing blankets causing problems during a press run.
Double-thick” describes a sheet of paper made by bonding two thicknesses of paper together resulting in an extra-stiff sheet. In lithography, cloth covered, parchment paper or rubber rollers that distribute the dampening to the press plate. Water, gum buffered acid, and various types of etches used to keep the non-image areas of the plate moist, and preventing them from accepting ink, in the lithographic printing process; also called fountain solution.
As the wet paper web passes under the turning watermark dandy the designs are impressed into the paper and a permanent watermark is left in the sheet.
On the wet end of the paper machine the straps or deckle rulers that prevent the fiber from overflowing the sides of the machine. The deckle determines how wide the paper on a particular machine will be. Refers to the feathered edge on paper produced when fibers flow against the deckle or edge of the web. Deliberately produced for aesthetic purposes, a deckle edge is found especially on formal stationery and announcements. A deckle edge can be created by an air jet, or also by a stream of water.
A process which removes ink, toner, coatings and most fillers from recovered paper. The environmental priority is to make this process TCF, totally chlorine free. The average amount of dirt in a specific size of paper area. Both virgin and recycled sheets have “dirt,” although recycled paper has significantly higher dirt counts. The dirt should always be small enough not to interfere with the quality of the finished printed piece.
Area of the originating press where the freshly printed sheets are piled as they leave the impression section. Reflection instrument measuring the density of colored ink to determine its consistency throughout a press run.
Identifies the weight of paper compared to the volume; it is directly related to the paper’s absorbency, stiffness, and opacity.
Pressure vessel in which wood chips are cooked to separate fibers from each other and to remove detrimental particles.
Characteristic of paper to retain its dimensions in all directions under the stress of production and adverse changes in humidity.
Dirt in paper consists of any imbedded foreign matter or specks, which contrast in color to the remainder of the sheet. Company which purchases paper from mill for resale to printers and end-users. Usually a distributor has protected or franchised product lines and territories.
Inventory, warehousing, distribution and transportation of product are among the many services offered to paper buyers. Also called a merchant. Tabbed sheets of index or other heavy stock, used to identify and separate specific sections of a book; used in loose-leaf and bound books. Handwork on engravings and lithographic screened halftone negatives for correcting tonal values in either black-and-white or color work. A means of extending the range of density available with printing ink by printing twice with black ink, using two specially prepared halftone negatives.
Also called double-black duotone. Two halftone negatives combined onto one printing plate, having greater tonal range than a conventional halftone negatives. One negative reproduces highlight and shadows, the other middle tones.